Hechicería y brujería en la Navarra medieval: de la superstición al castigo

In the late 13th century is when the first mentions of women folk healers and wizards have been documented in the Kingdom of Navarre. Since then, the sources allow us to trace a clear evolution of both the punishment, which was a lot more severe, and of their conception, influenced by the assumption of harmful and diabolical criteria towards what initially were simple folk healing practices. The monarch, who was always poised for any opportunity to strengthen his position, had no doubt in assuming the persecution of such practices in order to guarantee the social and divine order in those places that were farther apart from the centres of public power.