Biscay in Tlaxcala. Provincial Traditions in the Spanish Monarchy

The first article of the first Spanish constitution (1812) stated that the Spanish nation was the reunion of all Spaniards form both hemispheres. For a political and historiographical culture forged by the principle of nationality this assertion has no sense since each nation requires it s own constitution. However, it could have sense in a world where constitutionalism preceded to nationality. The parallel historical itineraries of two privileged provinces of the Spanish monarchy, one located in Europe (Biscay) and the other in America (Tlaxcala) facing the crisis of the monarchy and the emergence of constitutionalism, can be of particular value for understanding the meaning of constitutionalism in the Hispanic world.