This chapter explores the terms in which the Scots discussed union with England in the century between 1603 and 1707. The Scot s´understanding of their place within the British monarchy is compared with that of Neapolitans within the Spanish Monarchy. But where the Neapolitans sought greater independence, the Scots sought closer union. In the event, the Scots agreed to "incorporating" rather than "confederal" union with England, but with two important concessions: the Union was regarded as a "treaty" and it s justification was the "utility" of the people. The new Parliament of Great Britain might be sovereign, but the Scots continued to regard the Union as conditional.